# Geospatial Functions#

Presto Geospatial functions that begin with the `ST_` prefix support the SQL/MM specification and are compliant with the Open Geospatial Consortium’s (OGC) OpenGIS Specifications. As such, many Presto Geospatial functions require, or more accurately, assume that geometries that are operated on are both simple and valid. For example, it does not make sense to calculate the area of a polygon that has a hole defined outside of the polygon, or to construct a polygon from a non-simple boundary line.

Presto Geospatial functions support the Well-Known Text (WKT) and Well-Known Binary (WKB) form of spatial objects:

• `POINT (0 0)`

• `LINESTRING (0 0, 1 1, 1 2)`

• `POLYGON ((0 0, 4 0, 4 4, 0 4, 0 0), (1 1, 2 1, 2 2, 1 2, 1 1))`

• `MULTIPOINT (0 0, 1 2)`

• `MULTILINESTRING ((0 0, 1 1, 1 2), (2 3, 3 2, 5 4))`

• `MULTIPOLYGON (((0 0, 4 0, 4 4, 0 4, 0 0), (1 1, 2 1, 2 2, 1 2, 1 1)), ((-1 -1, -1 -2, -2 -2, -2 -1, -1 -1)))`

• `GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT(2 3), LINESTRING (2 3, 3 4))`

Use `ST_GeometryFromText` and `ST_GeomFromBinary` functions to create geometry objects from WKT or WKB. In WKT/WKB, the coordinate order is `(x, y)`. For spherical/geospatial uses, this implies `(longitude, latitude)` instead of `(latitude, longitude)`.

The basis for the `Geometry` type is a plane. The shortest path between two points on the plane is a straight line. That means calculations on geometries (areas, distances, lengths, intersections, etc) can be calculated using cartesian mathematics and straight line vectors.

The `SphericalGeography` type provides native support for spatial features represented on “geographic” coordinates (sometimes called “geodetic” coordinates, or “lat/lon”, or “lon/lat”). Geographic coordinates are spherical coordinates expressed in angular units (degrees).

The basis for the `SphericalGeography` type is a sphere. The shortest path between two points on the sphere is a great circle arc. That means that calculations on geographies (areas, distances, lengths, intersections, etc) must be calculated on the sphere, using more complicated mathematics. More accurate measurements that take the actual spheroidal shape of the world into account are not supported.

For `SphericalGeography` objects, values returned by the measurement functions `ST_Distance` and `ST_Length` are in the unit of meters; values returned by `ST_Area` are in square meters.

Use `to_spherical_geography()` function to convert a geometry object to geography object. For example, `ST_Distance(ST_Point(-71.0882, 42.3607), ST_Point(-74.1197, 40.6976))` returns 3.4577 in the unit of the passed-in values on the euclidean plane, while `ST_Distance(to_spherical_geography(ST_Point(-71.0882, 42.3607)), to_spherical_geography(ST_Point(-74.1197, 40.6976)))` returns 312822.179 in meters.

## Constructors#

ST_AsBinary(Geometry) varbinary#

Returns the WKB representation of the geometry.

ST_AsText(Geometry) varchar#

Returns the WKT representation of the geometry. For empty geometries, `ST_AsText(ST_LineFromText('LINESTRING EMPTY'))` will produce `'MULTILINESTRING EMPTY'` and `ST_AsText(ST_Polygon('POLYGON EMPTY'))` will produce `'MULTIPOLYGON EMPTY'`.

ST_GeometryFromText(varchar) Geometry#

Returns a geometry type object from WKT representation.

ST_GeomFromBinary(varbinary) Geometry#

Returns a geometry type object from WKB representation.

ST_LineFromText(varchar) LineString#

Returns a geometry type linestring object from WKT representation.

ST_LineString(array(Point)) LineString#

Returns a LineString formed from an array of points. If there are fewer than two non-empty points in the input array, an empty LineString will be returned. Throws an exception if any element in the array is `null` or empty or same as the previous one. The returned geometry may not be simple, e.g. may self-intersect or may contain duplicate vertexes depending on the input.

ST_MultiPoint(array(Point)) MultiPoint#

Returns a MultiPoint geometry object formed from the specified points. Return `null` if input array is empty. Throws an exception if any element in the array is `null` or empty. The returned geometry may not be simple and may contain duplicate points if input array has duplicates.

ST_Point(x, y) Point#

Returns a geometry type point object with the given coordinate values.

ST_Polygon(varchar) Polygon#

Returns a geometry type polygon object from WKT representation.

to_spherical_geography(Geometry) SphericalGeography#

Converts a Geometry object to a SphericalGeography object on the sphere of the Earth’s radius. This function is only applicable to `POINT`, `MULTIPOINT`, `LINESTRING`, `MULTILINESTRING`, `POLYGON`, `MULTIPOLYGON` geometries defined in 2D space, or `GEOMETRYCOLLECTION` of such geometries. For each point of the input geometry, it verifies that point.x is within [-180.0, 180.0] and point.y is within [-90.0, 90.0], and uses them as (longitude, latitude) degrees to construct the shape of the `SphericalGeography` result.

to_geometry(SphericalGeography) Geometry#

Converts a SphericalGeography object to a Geometry object.

## Relationship Tests#

ST_Contains(Geometry, Geometry) -> boolean

Returns `true` if and only if no points of the second geometry lie in the exterior of the first geometry, and at least one point of the interior of the first geometry lies in the interior of the second geometry.

ST_Crosses(Geometry, Geometry) -> boolean

Returns `true` if the supplied geometries have some, but not all, interior points in common.

ST_Disjoint(Geometry, Geometry) -> boolean

Returns `true` if the give geometries do not spatially intersect – if they do not share any space together.

ST_Equals(Geometry, Geometry) -> boolean

Returns `true` if the given geometries represent the same geometry.

ST_Intersects(Geometry, Geometry) -> boolean

Returns `true` if the given geometries spatially intersect in two dimensions (share any portion of space) and `false` if they do not (they are disjoint).

ST_Overlaps(Geometry, Geometry) -> boolean

Returns `true` if the given geometries share space, are of the same dimension, but are not completely contained by each other.

ST_Relate(Geometry, Geometry) -> boolean

Returns `true` if first geometry is spatially related to second geometry.

ST_Touches(Geometry, Geometry) -> boolean

Returns `true` if the given geometries have at least one point in common, but their interiors do not intersect.

ST_Within(Geometry, Geometry) -> boolean

Returns `true` if first geometry is completely inside second geometry.

## Operations#

geometry_union(array(Geometry)) Geometry#

Returns a geometry that represents the point set union of the input geometries. Performance of this function, in conjunction with `array_agg()` to first aggregate the input geometries, may be better than `geometry_union_agg()`, at the expense of higher memory utilization.

ST_Boundary(Geometry) Geometry#

Returns the closure of the combinatorial boundary of this geometry.

ST_Buffer(Geometry, distance) Geometry#

Returns the geometry that represents all points whose distance from the specified geometry is less than or equal to the specified distance. If the points of the geometry are extremely close together (`delta < 1e-8`), this might return an empty geometry.

ST_Difference(Geometry, Geometry) -> Geometry

Returns the geometry value that represents the point set difference of the given geometries.

ST_Envelope(Geometry) Geometry#

Returns the bounding rectangular polygon of a geometry.

ST_EnvelopeAsPts(Geometry)#

Returns an array of two points: the lower left and upper right corners of the bounding rectangular polygon of a geometry. Returns `null` if input geometry is empty.

expand_envelope(Geometry, double) Geometry#

Returns the bounding rectangular polygon of a geometry, expanded by a distance. Empty geometries will return an empty polygon. Negative or NaN distances will return an error. Positive infinity distances may lead to undefined results.

ST_ExteriorRing(Geometry) Geometry#

Returns a line string representing the exterior ring of the input polygon.

ST_Intersection(Geometry, Geometry) -> Geometry

Returns the geometry value that represents the point set intersection of two geometries.

ST_SymDifference(Geometry, Geometry) -> Geometry

Returns the geometry value that represents the point set symmetric difference of two geometries.

ST_Union(Geometry, Geometry) -> Geometry

Returns a geometry that represents the point set union of the input geometries.

## Accessors#

ST_Area(Geometry) double#

Returns the 2D Euclidean area of a geometry.

For Point and LineString types, returns 0.0. For GeometryCollection types, returns the sum of the areas of the individual geometries.

ST_Area(SphericalGeography) double#

Returns the area of a polygon or multi-polygon in square meters using a spherical model for Earth.

ST_Centroid(Geometry) Point#

Returns the point value that is the mathematical centroid of a geometry.

ST_Centroid(SphericalGeography) Point#

Returns the point value that is the mathematical centroid of a spherical geometry.

It supports Points and MultiPoints as input and returns the three-dimensional centroid projected onto the surface of the (spherical) Earth e.g. MULTIPOINT (0 -45, 0 45, 30 0, -30 0) returns Point(0, 0) Note: In the case that the three-dimensional centroid is at (0, 0, 0), the spherical centroid is undefined and an arbitrary point will be returned e.g. MULTIPOINT (0 0, -180 0) returns Point(-90, 45)

ST_ConvexHull(Geometry) Geometry#

Returns the minimum convex geometry that encloses all input geometries.

ST_CoordDim(Geometry) bigint#

Return the coordinate dimension of the geometry.

ST_Dimension(Geometry) bigint#

Returns the inherent dimension of this geometry object, which must be less than or equal to the coordinate dimension.

ST_Distance(Geometry, Geometry) -> double

Returns the 2-dimensional cartesian minimum distance (based on spatial ref) between two geometries in projected units.

ST_Distance(SphericalGeography, SphericalGeography) -> double

Returns the great-circle distance in meters between two SphericalGeography points.

geometry_nearest_points(Geometry, Geometry) -> array(Point)

Returns the points on each geometry nearest the other. If either geometry is empty, return `NULL`. Otherwise, return an array of two Points that have the minimum distance of any two points on the geometries. The first Point will be from the first Geometry argument, the second from the second Geometry argument. If there are multiple pairs with the minimum distance, one pair is chosen arbitrarily.

ST_GeometryN(Geometry, index) Geometry#

Returns the geometry element at a given index (indices start at 1). If the geometry is a collection of geometries (e.g., GEOMETRYCOLLECTION or MULTI*), returns the geometry at a given index. If the given index is less than 1 or greater than the total number of elements in the collection, returns `NULL`. Use :func:`ST_NumGeometries` to find out the total number of elements. Singular geometries (e.g., POINT, LINESTRING, POLYGON), are treated as collections of one element. Empty geometries are treated as empty collections.

ST_InteriorRingN(Geometry, index) Geometry#

Returns the interior ring element at the specified index (indices start at 1). If the given index is less than 1 or greater than the total number of interior rings in the input geometry, returns `NULL`. Throws an error if the input geometry is not a polygon. Use :func:`ST_NumInteriorRing` to find out the total number of elements.

ST_GeometryType(Geometry) varchar#

Returns the type of the geometry.

ST_IsClosed(Geometry) boolean#

Returns `true` if the linestring’s start and end points are coincident.

ST_IsEmpty(Geometry) boolean#

Returns `true` if this Geometry is an empty geometrycollection, polygon, point etc.

ST_IsSimple(Geometry) boolean#

Returns `true` if this Geometry has no anomalous geometric points, such as self intersection or self tangency. Use `geometry_invalid_reason()` to determine why the geometry is not simple.

ST_IsRing(Geometry) boolean#

Returns `true` if and only if the line is closed and simple.

ST_IsValid(Geometry) boolean#

Returns `true` if and only if the input geometry is well formed. Use `geometry_invalid_reason()` to determine why the geometry is not well formed.

ST_Length(Geometry) double#

Returns the length of a linestring or multi-linestring using Euclidean measurement on a two dimensional plane (based on spatial ref) in projected units.

ST_Length(SphericalGeography) double#

Returns the length of a linestring or multi-linestring on a spherical model of the Earth. This is equivalent to the sum of great-circle distances between adjacent points on the linestring.

ST_PointN(LineString, index) Point#

Returns the vertex of a linestring at a given index (indices start at 1). If the given index is less than 1 or greater than the total number of elements in the collection, returns `NULL`. Use :func:`ST_NumPoints` to find out the total number of elements.

ST_Points(Geometry)#

Returns an array of points in a linestring.

ST_XMax(Geometry) double#

Returns the X maximum of the geometry’s bounding box.

ST_YMax(Geometry) double#

Returns the Y maximum of the geometry’s bounding box.

ST_XMin(Geometry) double#

Returns the X minimum of the geometry’s bounding box.

ST_YMin(Geometry) double#

Returns the Y minimum of the geometry’s bounding box.

ST_StartPoint(Geometry) point#

Returns the first point of a LineString geometry as a Point. This is a shortcut for `ST_PointN(geometry, 1)`.

ST_EndPoint(Geometry) point#

Returns the last point of a LineString geometry as a Point. This is a shortcut for `ST_PointN(geometry, ST_NumPoints(geometry))`.

ST_X(Point) double#

Return the X coordinate of the point.

ST_Y(Point) double#

Return the Y coordinate of the point.

ST_InteriorRings(Geometry)#

Returns an array of all interior rings found in the input geometry, or an empty array if the polygon has no interior rings. Returns `null` if the input geometry is empty. Throws an error if the input geometry is not a polygon.

ST_NumGeometries(Geometry) bigint#

Returns the number of geometries in the collection. If the geometry is a collection of geometries (e.g., GEOMETRYCOLLECTION or MULTI*), returns the number of geometries, for single geometries returns 1, for empty geometries returns 0. Note that empty geometries inside of a GEOMETRYCOLLECTION will count as a geometry; eg `ST_NumGeometries(ST_GeometryFromText('GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(MULTIPOINT EMPTY)'))` will evaluate to 1.

ST_Geometries(Geometry)#

Returns an array of geometries in the specified collection. Returns a one-element array if the input geometry is not a multi-geometry. Returns `null` if input geometry is empty.

For example, a MultiLineString will create an array of LineStrings. A GeometryCollection will produce an un-flattened array of its constituents: `GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(MULTIPOINT(0 0, 1 1), GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(MULTILINESTRING((2 2, 3 3))))` would produce `array[MULTIPOINT(0 0, 1 1), GEOMETRYCOLLECTION(MULTILINESTRING((2 2, 3 3)))]`.

flatten_geometry_collections(Geometry)#

Recursively flattens any GeometryCollections in Geometry, returning an array of constituent non-GeometryCollection geometries. The order of the array is arbitrary and should not be relied upon. Examples:

`POINT (0 0) -> [POINT (0 0)]`, `MULTIPOINT (0 0, 1 1) -> [MULTIPOINT (0 0, 1 1)]`, `GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (0 0), GEOMETRYCOLLECTION (POINT (1 1))) -> [POINT (0 0), POINT (1 1)]`, `GEOMETRYCOLLECTION EMPTY -> []`.

ST_NumPoints(Geometry) bigint#

Returns the number of points in a geometry. This is an extension to the SQL/MM `ST_NumPoints` function which only applies to point and linestring.

ST_NumInteriorRing(Geometry) bigint#

Returns the cardinality of the collection of interior rings of a polygon.

simplify_geometry(Geometry, double) Geometry#

Returns a “simplified” version of the input geometry using the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. Will avoid creating derived geometries (polygons in particular) that are invalid.

line_locate_point(LineString, Point) double#

Returns a float between 0 and 1 representing the location of the closest point on the LineString to the given Point, as a fraction of total 2d line length.

Returns `null` if a LineString or a Point is empty or `null`.

line_interpolate_point(LineString, double) Geometry#

Returns the Point on the LineString at a fractional distance given by the double argument. Throws an exception if the distance is not between 0 and 1.

Returns an empty Point if the LineString is empty. Returns `null` if either the LineString or double is null.

geometry_invalid_reason(Geometry) varchar#

Returns the reason for why the input geometry is not valid or not simple. If the geometry is neither valid no simple, it will only give the reason for invalidity. Returns `null` if the input is valid and simple.

great_circle_distance(latitude1, longitude1, latitude2, longitude2) double#

Returns the great-circle distance between two points on Earth’s surface in kilometers.

geometry_as_geojson(Geometry) varchar#

Returns the GeoJSON encoded defined by the input geometry. If the geometry is atomic (non-multi) empty, this function would return null.

geometry_from_geojson(varchar) Geometry#

Returns the geometry type object from the GeoJSON representation. The geometry cannot be empty if it is an atomic (non-multi) geometry type.

## Aggregations#

convex_hull_agg(Geometry) Geometry#

Returns the minimum convex geometry that encloses all input geometries.

geometry_union_agg(Geometry) Geometry#

Returns a geometry that represents the point set union of all input geometries.

## Bing Tiles#

These functions convert between geometries and Bing tiles. For Bing tiles, `x` and `y` refer to `tile_x` and `tile_y`. Bing Tiles can be cast to and from BigInts, using an internal representation that encodes the `zoom`, `x`, and `y` efficiently:

```cast(cast(tile AS BIGINT) AS BINGTILE)
```

While every tile can be cast to a bigint, casting from a bigint that does not represent a valid tile will raise an exception.

bing_tile(x, y, zoom_level) BingTile#

Creates a Bing tile object from XY coordinates and a zoom level. Zoom levels from 1 to 23 are supported.

Creates a Bing tile object from a quadkey.

bing_tile_parent(tile) BingTile#

Returns the parent of the Bing tile at one lower zoom level. Throws an exception if tile is at zoom level 0.

bing_tile_parent(tile, newZoom) BingTile#

Returns the parent of the Bing tile at the specified lower zoom level. Throws an exception if newZoom is less than 0, or newZoom is greater than the tile’s zoom.

bing_tile_children(tile)#

Returns the children of the Bing tile at one higher zoom level. Throws an exception if tile is at max zoom level.

bing_tile_children(tile, newZoom)#

Returns the children of the Bing tile at the specified higher zoom level. Throws an exception if newZoom is greater than the max zoom level, or newZoom is less than the tile’s zoom.

bing_tile_at(latitude, longitude, zoom_level) BingTile#

Returns a Bing tile at a given zoom level containing a point at a given latitude and longitude. Latitude must be within `[-85.05112878, 85.05112878]` range. Longitude must be within `[-180, 180]` range. Zoom levels from 1 to 23 are supported.

bing_tiles_around(latitude, longitude, zoom_level)#

Returns a collection of Bing tiles that surround the point specified by the latitude and longitude arguments at a given zoom level.

Returns a minimum set of Bing tiles at specified zoom level that cover a circle of specified radius in km around a specified (latitude, longitude) point.

bing_tile_coordinates(tile) row<x, y>#

Returns the XY coordinates of a given Bing tile.

bing_tile_polygon(tile) Geometry#

Returns the polygon representation of a given Bing tile.

Returns the quadkey of a given Bing tile.

bing_tile_zoom_level(tile) tinyint#

Returns the zoom level of a given Bing tile.

geometry_to_bing_tiles(geometry, zoom_level)#

Returns the minimum set of Bing tiles that fully covers a given geometry at a given zoom level. Zoom levels from 1 to 23 are supported.

geometry_to_dissolved_bing_tiles(geometry, max_zoom_level)#

Returns the minimum set of Bing tiles that fully covers a given geometry at a given zoom level, recursively dissolving full sets of children into parents. This results in a smaller array of tiles of different zoom levels. For example, if the non-dissolved covering is [“00”, “01”, “02”, “03”, “10”], the dissolved covering would be [“0”, “10”]. Zoom levels from 1 to 23 are supported.